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Variables and results

The API reference with the corresponding function signatures for variable and result can be found here.

In this part we want to take a closer look at some details.


The annotation functions variable and result are transparent for the Python interpreter.

Let's say we have the following code:

x = variable(5., name="x")

tmp = heavy_computation(x)

y = result(tmp, name="y")

To the Python interpreter the code looks more or less like this:

x = 5

tmp = heavy_computation(x)

y = tmp

The calls to variable and result always return the value itself. In the background, these calls create the annotation which is necessary for the LMRTFY platform.

When a function is deployed the variable functions injects the input arguments of the job received through the LMRTFY platform into the script. The result function on the other hand funnels the result back to the LMRTFY platform which makes it available to the caller of the function.

Checking the validity of input arguments

If you checked the API reference you may have noticed that variable and result have some additional parameters: min, max, and unit. Even better, through the first argument, the actual value, you also create type information that allows us to thoroughly check incoming job submissions.

Type checking

The input type is inferred from the value that is used in the variable function call.

function call inferred type of x accepted type with LMRTFY
x = variable(5, name="x") int int
x = variable(5., name="x") float float
x = variable([5, 2], name="x") int_array list[int], ndarray[int]
x = variable([5.,2.], name="x") float_array list[float], ndarray[float]
x = variable("abc", name="x") str str
x = variable(["abc", "def"], name="x") str_array list[str]
x = variable(["abd", 1, 1.1], name="x") json list[any]
x = variable({"a": "a", "b": 1}, name="x") json dict

If the input arguments submitted via the catalog do not match the accepted type, we reject the job and tell the caller to fix their types. We chose a strict type checking because a type has its meaning which it might lose during automatic conversion.

Bounds checking

The min and max parameters limit the range in which numeric input variables are seen as valid. This is especially useful if your algorithm has known and well-defined limitations. If it only works between \(0\) and \(1000\) you can simply specify variable(500, name="a", min=0, max=1000).

When a job is submitted via the LMRTFY platform, these bounds are checked. If the input variable a is out of bounds we notify the caller and reject the job.

Unit checking

Another useful thing is the annotation with an actual unit for the variable. Currently, this is done via str but we will switch to pint units in later releases.

Similar to the numeric bounds the units are checked during the job submission and the job is rejected if the unit do not match.


In 1999 the NASA lost its Mars Climate Orbiter due to a navigation error, which was caused by a failure to convert units from the imperial system to the metric system.